Critics of Islam say that the verse “those who have not menstruated yet,” refers to underage girls, and therefore Quran allows marriage with girls who have not gone through puberty.ï»¿
That is a complete misinterpretation of Quran. What Quran is referring to is not underage girls but women who stop menstruating for some medical reason, which is not uncommon. The condition is called functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a disorder characterized by the failure to menstruate. It is thought to be caused by abnormal activity of many hormones, the condition is also related to metabolic imbalances and stress.
Also, there are now drugs which can stop menstruation.
The reason that it does not apply to underage girls is that there are Hadiths which suggest that a girl should have reached puberty before marriage. Child marriages in Arabia have also been rare. The controversy came about because of Ayesha, but now modern research shows that she must have been 18 at the time of her marriage, if other Hadiths about her and about her sister are correct. Iraqi and Iranians, who wrote much of the Hadith literature, reduced her age in Hadith literature because of another controversy: she kept figurines which only underage girls were allowed to have for fear of idolatry. See my web page, “Ayesha’s Age.”